Edinburgh

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This article is about the capital of Scotland. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation).

Capital city in Scotland
Edinburgh

Dùn Èideann
Capital city
City of Edinburgh
Clockwise from top-left: View from Calton Hill, Old College, Old Town from Princes Street, Edinburgh Castle, Princes Street from Calton Hill

Flag

Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
Edinburgh
Location within Scotland
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Edinburgh
Location within the United Kingdom
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Edinburgh
Location within Europe
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Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°W / 55.953; -3.189Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°W / 55.953; -3.189
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
CountryScotland
Council areaCity of Edinburgh
Lieutenancy areaEdinburgh
FoundedPrior to 7th century AD
Burgh Charter1125
City status1889
Government
 • TypeUnitary authority
 • Governing bodyThe City of Edinburgh Council
 • Lord Provost of EdinburghFrank Ross
 • MSPs
6
  • Ash Denham (SNP)
  • Ruth Davidson (C)
  • Daniel Johnson (L)
  • Gordon MacDonald (SNP)
  • Ben Macpherson (SNP)
  • Alex Cole-Hamilton (LD)
 • MPs
5
  • Joanna Cherry (SNP)
  • Tommy Sheppard (SNP)
  • Ian Murray (L)
  • Deidre Brock (SNP)
  • Christine Jardine (LD)
Area
 • Capital city102 sq mi (264 km2)
 • Metro
87 sq mi (225 km2)
Elevation
[4]
154 ft (47 m)
Population
 (2016 and 2018)
 • Capital city488,050 – Locality [1] 518,500 – Council[2]
 • Density4,730/sq mi (1,828/km2)
 • Metro
794,040[3]
 • Language(s)
English, Scots
Demonym(s)Edinburgher [5][6]
Time zoneUTC±0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode areas
EH1-17, EH28-30
Area code(s)0131
ISO 3166-2GB-EDH
ONS codeS12000036
OS grid referenceNT275735
NUTS 3UKM25
Primary AirportEdinburgh Airport
GDP$33 billion[7]
GDP per capita$58,000[7]
Websitewww.edinburgh.gov.uk
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameOld and New Towns of Edinburgh
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv
Reference728
Inscription1995 (19th Session)

Edinburgh (/ˈɛdɪnbərə/ (listen);[8][9][10] Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]; Scots: Edinburgh) is the capital of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire prior to 1921),[11] it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.

Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom (after London)[12] and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination attracting 1.75 million visits from overseas in 2016.[13]

Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 488,050 (2016) for the Locality of Edinburgh (Edinburgh pre 1975 regionalisation plus Currie and Balerno),[14] 518,500 (2018) for the City of Edinburgh,[2] and 1,339,380 (2014) for the city region.[15][16] Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian.[17]

The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 20th in the QS World University Rankings for 2020.[18] The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site,[19] which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.