This article is about the capital of Scotland. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation).
|City of Edinburgh|
Clockwise from top-left: View from Calton Hill, Old College, Old Town from Princes Street, Edinburgh Castle, Princes Street from Calton Hill
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
Location within the United Kingdom
|Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°WCoordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°W|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Council area||City of Edinburgh|
|Founded||Prior to 7th century AD|
| • Type||Unitary authority|
| • Governing body||The City of Edinburgh Council|
| • Lord Provost of Edinburgh||Frank Ross|
| • MSPs|
- Ash Denham (SNP)
- Ruth Davidson (C)
- Daniel Johnson (L)
- Gordon MacDonald (SNP)
- Ben Macpherson (SNP)
- Alex Cole-Hamilton (LD)
| • MPs|
- Joanna Cherry (SNP)
- Tommy Sheppard (SNP)
- Ian Murray (L)
- Deidre Brock (SNP)
- Christine Jardine (LD)
| • Capital city||102 sq mi (264 km2)|
| • Metro||87 sq mi (225 km2)|
|154 ft (47 m)|
(2016 and 2018)
| • Capital city||488,050 – Locality  518,500 – Council|
| • Density||4,730/sq mi (1,828/km2)|
| • Metro||794,040|
| • Language(s)||English, Scots|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (GMT)|
| • Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
|OS grid reference||NT275735|
|Primary Airport||Edinburgh Airport|
|GDP per capita||$58,000|
UNESCO World Heritage Site
|Official name||Old and New Towns of Edinburgh|
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv|
|Inscription||1995 (19th Session)|
Edinburgh (/ˈɛdɪnbərə/ (listen); Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]; Scots: Edinburgh) is the capital of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire prior to 1921), it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.
Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom (after London) and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination attracting 1.75 million visits from overseas in 2016.
Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 488,050 (2016) for the Locality of Edinburgh (Edinburgh pre 1975 regionalisation plus Currie and Balerno), 518,500 (2018) for the City of Edinburgh, and 1,339,380 (2014) for the city region. Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian.
The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 20th in the QS World University Rankings for 2020. The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.